Home About SleepEZ For Physicians For Patients Learn More About Sleep Disorders Contact Us
SleepEZ: Diagnostic Excellence in a Serene Setting


Posts Tagged ‘REM’

Sleep Apnea Can Worsen Blood Sugar Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes

April 2nd, 2014 Raquel Rothe

Researchers at the University of Chicago found that sleep apnea can worsen blood sugar control in people with Type 2 diabetes.

The findings provide another good reason for people with sleep apnea to wear a CPAP mask that helps assure uninterrupted breathing, the standard treatment for the condition, throughout the night. It is well known that sleep apnea, which causes breathing pauses and dangerous drops in oxygen during sleep, sharply raises the risk of Type 2 diabetes. More severe cases of sleep apnea are generally associated with poorer blood sugar control in diabetics

As originally reported on the American Diabetes Association web site (and published in Diabetes Care), disruption during the REM phase of sleep had the most detrimental effects on long-term blood sugar control. The problem, says Dr. Babak Mokhlesi, an author of the study “Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep with Reduced Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: Therapeutic Implications”, is that most REM sleep occurs in the early morning hours before waking, at a time when many patients remove their CPAP mask.

“In type 2 diabetes, OSA during REM sleep may influence long-term glycemic control,” writes Mokhlesi, director of the sleep disorders center at the University of Chicago, in the study’s abstract. “The metabolic benefits of CPAP therapy may not be achieved with the typical adherence of 4 h per night.”


Sleep helps boost production of brain cells

September 26th, 2013 Raquel Rothe

By Lynn Celmer :

A new study finds yet another reason to get more sleep – it’s beneficial for the brain. Sleep increases the reproduction of the cells that go on to form the insulating material on nerve cell projections in the brain and spinal cord known as myelin, according to an animal study published in the September 4 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. The findings could one day lead scientists to new insights about sleep’s role in brain repair and growth.

Scientists have known for years that many genes are turned on during sleep and off during periods of wakefulness. However, it was unclear how sleep affects specific cells types, such as oligodendrocytes, which make myelin in the healthy brain and in response to injury. Much like the insulation around an electrical wire, myelin allows electrical impulses to move rapidly from one cell to the next.

In the current study, Chiara Cirelli, MD, PhD, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, measured gene activity in oligodendrocytes from mice that slept or were forced to stay awake. The group found that genes promoting myelin formation were turned on during sleep. In contrast, the genes implicated in cell death and the cellular stress response were turned on when the animals stayed awake.

Additional analysis revealed that the reproduction of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) — cells that become oligodendrocytes — doubles during sleep, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM), which is associated with dreaming.

“For a long time, sleep researchers focused on how the activity of nerve cells differs when animals are awake versus when they are asleep,” Cirelli said. “Now it is clear that the way other supporting cells in the nervous system operate also changes significantly depending on whether the animal is asleep or awake.”

Additionally, Cirelli speculated the findings suggest that extreme and/or chronic sleep loss could possibly aggravate some symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease that damages myelin. Cirelli noted that future experiments may examine whether or not an association between sleep patterns and severity of MS symptoms exists.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine considers sleep disorders an illness that has reached epidemic proportions

REM Sleep-Stage 4

March 19th, 2013 Raquel Rothe

Now we dream! In “rapid-eye movement” sleep, the eyes are active and the brain is more so.  Faster brain waves return as if we’re awake.  Our limbs become temporarily paralyzed so we don’t act out our dreams.  Newborns spend half their sleep time in REM sleep, elderly adults only spend 15 percent in this stage of sleep.

Quiz: What Do Your Dreams Say About You?

February 26th, 2012 Raquel Rothe

21 Easy Tweaks for the New Year

January 3rd, 2012 Raquel Rothe

Childhood Obesity and Bedtime Preference

October 28th, 2011 Raquel Rothe

A study published in the October issue of the journal SLEEP from American Academy of Sleep Medicine:


“Scientists have realized in recent years that children who get less sleep tend to do worse on a variety of health outcomes, including the risk of being overweight and obese,” said study co-author Carol Maher, PhD. “[The study] suggests that the timing of sleep is even more important.”

Words to expand your sleep vocabulary-#6

June 5th, 2011 Raquel Rothe


Parasomnias are sleep disorders characterized by abnormal sleep behaviors. The word comes from Latin and means “around sleep”. Parasomnias involve unconscious complex, semi-purposeful, and goal-directed behaviors. These may include sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep eating, sleep sex, rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, or any number of potential behaviors while the person remains asleep.

Words to expand your sleep vocabulary-#5

June 2nd, 2011 Raquel Rothe

Pavor nocturnus

Pavor nocturnus is an episodic emotional disturbance that occurs in sleep and typically affects young children. The episodes may include screaming, moaning, gasping, panic, and anxiety. Unlike nightmares, these episodes occur in non-rapid eye movement (REM) orslow-wave sleep. One of the parasomnias, an individual experiencing pavor nocturnus is not fully conscious and usually does not remember the episode in the morning.

Words to expand your sleep vocabulary-#3

May 2nd, 2011 Raquel Rothe

Sleep architecture

Sleep architecture represents the structure of sleep and is generally composed of a somewhat cyclical pattern of the various non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages. It can be summarized with a chart called a hypnogram.

WebMD Expert Blogs-Vitamin D: Daytime Energy the Old Fashioned Way

February 3rd, 2011 Raquel Rothe