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Sleepwalking

June 11th, 2015 Raquel Rothe

From Mayo Clinic

Sleepwalking — also known as somnambulism — involves getting up and walking around while in a state of sleep. More common in children than adults, sleepwalking is usually outgrown by the teen years. Isolated incidents of sleepwalking often don’t signal any serious problems or require treatment. However, recurrent sleepwalking may suggest an underlying sleep disorder.

Sleepwalking is less common in adults and has a higher chance of being confused with or coexisting with other sleep disorders as well as medical and mental health conditions.

If anyone in your household sleepwalks, it’s important to protect him or her from sleepwalking-related injuries.

Symptoms

Sleepwalking is classified as a parasomnia — an undesirable behavior or experience during sleep. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal, meaning it occurs during slow wave sleep, the deepest stage of dreamless (non-rapid eye movement, or NREM) sleep. Another NREM disorder is sleep terrors, which can occur together with sleepwalking.

Sleepwalking usually occurs early in the night — often one to two hours after falling asleep. It’s unlikely to occur during naps. A sleepwalking episode can occur rarely or often, and an episode generally lasts several minutes, but can last longer.

Someone who is sleepwalking may:

  • Get out of bed and walk around
  • Sit up in bed and open his or her eyes
  • Have a glazed, glassy-eyed expression
  • Do routine activities, such as getting dressed, talking or making a snack
  • Not respond or communicate with others
  • Be difficult to wake up during an episode
  • Be disoriented or confused for a short time after being awakened
  • Quickly return to sleep
  • Not remember the episode in the morning
  • Sometimes have problems functioning during the day because of disturbed sleep
  • Have sleep terrors in addition to sleepwalking

Rarely, a person who is sleepwalking will:

  • Leave the house
  • Drive a car
  • Engage in unusual behavior, such as urinating in a closet
  • Engage in sexual activity without awareness
  • Get injured, for example, by falling down the stairs or jumping out a window
  • Become violent during the confused period after awakening or, occasionally, during the event

When to see a doctor

Occasional episodes of sleepwalking aren’t usually a cause for concern. You can simply mention the sleepwalking at a routine physical or well-child exam. However, consult your doctor if the sleepwalking episodes:

  • Occur often — for example, more than one to two times a week
  • Lead to dangerous behavior or injury to the person who sleepwalks (which may occur, for example, after leaving the house) or to others
  • Cause significant sleep disruption to household members or embarrassment to the person who sleepwalks
  • Start for the first time in an adult
  • Continue into your child’s teen years

Causes

Many factors can contribute to sleepwalking, including:

  • Sleep deprivation
  • Fatigue
  • Stress
  • Depression
  • Anxiety, such as separation anxiety in children
  • Fever
  • Sleep schedule disruptions
  • Some medications and substances, such as short-acting hypnotics, sedatives or combinations of different drugs prescribed for psychiatric illnesses, as well as alcohol

Sometimes sleepwalking can by triggered by underlying conditions that interfere with sleep, such as:

  • Sleep-disordered breathing — a group of disorders characterized by abnormal breathing patterns during sleep (for example, obstructive sleep apnea)
  • Narcolepsy
  • Restless legs syndrome
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Migraines
  • Medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism, head injury or stroke
  • Travel

Risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of sleepwalking include:

  • Genetics. Sleepwalking appears to run in families. It’s more common if you have one parent who has a history of sleepwalking, and much more common if both parents have a history of the disorder.
  • Age. Sleepwalking occurs more often in children than adults, and onset in adulthood is more likely related to other health conditions.

Complications

Sleepwalking itself isn’t necessarily a concern, but sleepwalkers can:

  • Easily hurt themselves — especially if they walk near furniture or stairs, wander outdoors, drive a car or eat something inappropriate during a sleepwalking episode
  • Experience prolonged sleep disruption, which can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and possible school or behavior issues
  • Be embarrassed or experience problems with social relationships
  • Disturb others’ sleep
  • Injure someone who is close by during the period of brief confusion immediately after waking or occasionally during the event

Preparing for your appointment

If you have concerns about safety or underlying conditions, you may want to see your doctor. Your doctor may refer you to a sleep specialist.

What you can do

Here’s some information to help you prepare for your appointment.

  • Keep a sleep diary for two weeks before the appointment to help your doctor understand what’s causing the sleepwalking. In the morning, record as much as you know of bedtime rituals, quality of sleep, and so on. At the end of the day, record behaviors that may affect sleep, such as sleep schedule disruptions, caffeine intake and any medications taken.
  • Make a list of any symptoms experienced, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for the appointment.
  • Make a list of key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or other supplements currently being taken, and the dosages.
  • Bring a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember what the doctor says.
  • Prepare questions to ask your doctor to help you make the most of your time together.

Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing the symptoms or condition?
  • What are other possible causes?
  • What kinds of tests are needed?
  • Is the condition likely temporary or chronic?
  • What’s the best course of action?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you’re suggesting?
  • Are there any restrictions that need to be followed?
  • Is referral to a specialist needed?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don’t hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you begin experiencing or noticing symptoms?
  • Have you or your child had sleep problems in the past?
  • Does anyone else in your family have sleep problems?
  • What problems have you noticed related to the sleepwalking, such as awakening in unusual locations of the house?

Tests and diagnosis

Unless you live alone and are completely unaware of your sleepwalking, chances are you’ll make the diagnosis of sleepwalking for yourself. If your child sleepwalks, you’ll know it.

Your doctor may do a physical or psychological exam to identify any conditions that may be confused with sleepwalking, such as nighttime seizures, other sleep disorders or panic attacks. In some cases, a sleep study in an overnight sleep lab may be recommended.

Sleep studies

To participate in a sleep study, also known as a polysomnogram, you’ll likely spend the night in a sleep lab. A technologist places sensors on your scalp, temples, chest and legs using a mild adhesive, such as glue or tape. The sensors are connected by wires to a computer. A small clip is placed on your finger or ear to monitor the level of oxygen in your blood.

Polysomnography records your brain waves, the oxygen level in your blood, heart rate and breathing, as well as eye and leg movements during the study. Technologists monitor you throughout the night while you sleep.

Your doctor will review the information to determine whether you have any sleep disorders.

Treatments and drugs

Treatment for occasional sleepwalking usually isn’t necessary. In children who sleepwalk, it typically goes away by the teen years.

If you notice your child or anyone else in your household sleepwalking, gently lead him or her back to bed. It’s not dangerous to the sleepwalker to be awakened, but it can be disruptive — the person may become confused and disoriented, and possibly agitated.

Treatment may be needed if there are negative consequences for the sleepwalking, such as risk of injury or embarrassment, or if there’s distress for others.

Treatment may include:

  • Treating the underlying condition, if the sleepwalking is associated with sleep deprivation or an underlying sleep disturbance, medical condition or a mental health disorder
  • A change of medication, if it’s thought that the sleepwalking results from a drug
  • Anticipatory awakenings ― waking the sleepwalker about 15 minutes before the person usually sleepwalks, then staying awake for five minutes before falling asleep again
  • Medication, such as benzodiazepines or certain antidepressants, if the sleepwalking leads to the potential for injury, is disruptive to family members, or results in embarrassment or sleep disruption for the person who sleepwalks
  • Learning self-hypnosis

Lifestyle and home remedies

If sleepwalking is a problem for you or your child, try these suggestions.

  • Make the environment safe for sleepwalking. If sleepwalking has led to injuries or has the potential to do so, consider some of these precautions to prevent injury: Close and lock all windows and exterior doors at night. You might even lock interior doors or place alarms or bells on the doors. Block doorways or stairways with a gate, and move electrical cords or other objects that pose a tripping hazard. Sleep in a ground floor bedroom, if possible. Place any sharp or fragile objects out of reach, and lock up all weapons. If your child sleepwalks, don’t let him or her sleep in a bunk bed.
  • Get more sleep. Fatigue can contribute to sleepwalking. If you’re sleep deprived, try an earlier bedtime, a more regular sleep schedule or a short nap, especially for toddlers.
  • Establish a regular, relaxing routine before bedtime. Do quiet, calming activities before bed, such as reading books, doing puzzles or soaking in a warm bath. Meditation or relaxation exercises may help, too.
  • Put stress in its place. Identify the issues that cause stress, and brainstorm possible ways to handle the stress. Talk about what’s bothering you. Or if your child seems anxious or stressed, talk with him or her about any concerns.
  • Look for a pattern. For several nights, note ― or have another person in your home note ― how many minutes after bedtime a sleepwalking episode occurs. If the timing is fairly consistent, this information is useful in planning anticipatory awakenings.

Try to be positive. However disruptive, sleepwalking usually isn’t a serious condition — and it usually goes away on its own.


Updated: 2014-07-31

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Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery

May 15th, 2013 Raquel Rothe

Couples Who Sleep Apart are Healthier?

February 26th, 2013 Raquel Rothe
By Irmina Santaika
“Want the dream marriage? Then sleep in separate beds”dailymail.co.uk, 2009 August 1, 2012, L ifestyle My Joy Online The secret to a long and happy marriage could be having separate beds, an expert on sleep claims.
Not only will a couple escape arguments over duvet-hogging and fidgeting, but they will have a proper night’s rest.
This will have a huge impact on both their health and the relationship as poor sleep increases the risk of stroke, heart disease and divorce, said Dr Neil Stanley.
The consultant, who set up sleep laboratories at Surrey University, said: ‘Poor sleep is bad for your physical, mental and emotional health. There is no good thing about poor sleep.
‘If you sleep perfectly well together, then don’t change. But don’t be afraid to relocate.’ If a husband or wife snores, twin beds might not be an option either, and they should sleep in separate bedrooms, he told the British Science Festival.
Dr Stanley, who follows his own advice and sleeps in a different room to his wife, said that double beds are just not conducive to a good night’s sleep.
He said the tradition of the marital bed began with the industrial revolution, when people moved into cities and found themselves short of living space.
Before the Victorian era it was not uncommon for married couples to sleep apart.
He said that now the British way is to have a 4ft 6in double bed. ‘A standard single bed is 2ft 6in or 3ft, that means you have nine inches less sleeping space in bed than your child does in theirs.
‘You then put in this person who makes noise, punches, kicks and gets up to go to the loo in the middle of the night, is it any wonder you are not getting a good night’s sleep?’ He added:
‘Poor sleep increases the risk of depression, heart disease, stroke, respiratory failure and increases the risk of divorce and suicidal behaviour.’
A recent large- scale Japanese study concluded that seven and a half hours of sleep a night is optimal for good health.
A third of British adults regularly have fewer than five hours. Dr Stanley’s advice follows studies at Surrey University on the impact of tossing and turning on sleeping partners.
When one partner moves in his or her sleep, there is a 50 per cent chance the other will also change position.
Despite this, couples are reluctant to sleep apart, with just 8 per cent of those in their 40s and 50s bedding down in different rooms.
Separate bedrooms are much more common in old age, with more than 40 per cent of those aged 70-plus sleeping apart.
This could be because long-established couples feel more secure in their relationships.
They may also find it easier to bring up the touchy topic of one moving out of the marital bed and could also be more likely to have a spare room than a younger couple.
Dr Stanley said the argument that it is comforting to sleep beside someone else holds little water.
He said: ‘Sleep is the most selfish thing we can do. People say that they like the feeling of having their partner next to them when they are asleep. But you have to be awake to feel that.
‘We all know what it is like to sleep in a bed with somebody and have a cuddle. ‘But at one point you say, “I’m going to go to sleep now”.
‘Why not at that point just take yourself down the landing?
‘Intimacy is important for emotional health. But good sleep is important for physical, emotional and mental health.
‘Getting a good night’s sleep is something we should all aspire to.

Sleep breathing and sleep behavioral issues in kids can lead to other problems-CBS News

September 13th, 2012 Raquel Rothe

Sleep breathing and sleep behavioral issues in kids can lead to other problems

By
Michelle Castillo
Topics
Kids and family ,
Research

(CBS News) New studies are showing that sleep breathing problems like snoring or sleep behavioral problems like sleepwalking may cause other problematic issues in children.

“The take home from this is we need to be looking at these breathing and behavioral sleep problems at very young ages in these children,” Karen Bonuck, a professor in the department of Family and Social Medicine at Albert Einstein School of Medicine in New York, told HealthPop.

The National Sleep Foundation said that most children snore on occasion, but about 10 percent snore every night. Snoring is usually indicative of a sleep breathing problem. However, researchers have begun to notice the effect of sleep behavior problems – which include bedtime fears, difficulty falling asleep or sleepwalking – as well. Bonuck estimates between 10 to 30 percent of children may be affected.

Bonuck lead a new study, published in Pediatrics on Sept. 3, which showed that children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) or behavioral sleep problems (BSP) through the age of 5 were more likely to be in special education classes by the time they reached 8 years old.

The study looked at 11,049 children with SDBs and 11,467 children with BSPs born between 1990 and 1991 and recorded data when they were 6, 18, 30, 42 and 57 months of age.

Specifically, after adjusting for outside factors including IQ and other influencing forces, children with a SDB or BSP were 30 percent more likely to have a special education need. Those with behavioral sleep problems were an additional 7 percent more likely to have a special education need each year that a disorder was observed.

“What we found was that absolutely both behavioral and respiratory problems did increase the likelihood of special education,” she stated.

A previous study published in the Aug. 13 issue of Pediatrics also linked sleep breathing problems with other issues. The study showed that children who snored twice a week at 2 and 3 had more behavioral problems than children who snored at 2 or 3, but not during both ages. About 35 percent of kids who snored during the ages of 2 and 3 were “at risk” of behavioral problems or worse conditions, compared to only 10 percent of kids who didn’t snore at those ages or 12 percent of kids who snored at 2 or 3. Behavioral issues included hyperactivity, depression and inattention.

In the September 2012 issue of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) warned that sleep disturbances, including sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in children and can lead to significant health problems. They recommended that all children or adolescents who snore regularly be screened for OSAS, saying that treatments like adenotonsillectomies can significantly improve these conditions. Overweight or obese children are especially prone to sleep problems, and the AAP suggested that pediatricians advocate for a weight loss program in addition to any other sleep breathing treatments.

“There’s interest, but I’m not sure that people are paying attention,” Bonuck admitted. “I’m hoping that my study, the one earlier and the AAP guidelines really permeate….These are things people should really look for.”

Tips for Parents with Teen Bedtimes

July 1st, 2012 Raquel Rothe

Your teen may be full of energy and may run from one activity to the next. It is easy for you to see this and assume that he or she is getting enough sleep.

But studies show that your teen is likely getting less than eight hours of sleep on school nights. He or she even may be an extreme night owl who sleeps for only five or six hours before starting another school day. This is much less than the nine hours of nightly sleep that your teen needs to feel alert and well rested during the day.

The most common sign of sleep loss is excessive daytime sleepiness. This is obvious to teachers who often see students falling asleep in class. It is harder for you to observe since you are away from your teen for most of the school day.

But there are other signs that your teen may need more sleep. Review the following list to see how many of these signs describe your teen:

  • “Catching up” on sleep on weekends
  • Oversleeping in the morning
  • Arriving late for school
  • Getting bad grades at school
  • Getting into trouble at school
  • Falling asleep when riding in a car or driving
  • Falling asleep at home after school or in the early evening
  • Falling asleep in a movie theater or while watching TV
  • Lacking motivation and acting sluggish
  • Drinking high-caffeine beverages to improve alertness
  • Making mistakes
  • Being forgetful
  • Gaining weight
  • Getting sick frequently
  • Showing signs of depression or mood swings

14 Little Changes for a Healthier Life

November 17th, 2011 Raquel Rothe

http://health.yahoo.net/experts/menshealth/14-little-changes-healthier-life

That’s pretty much it. Small changes, big results. It’s my mantra. And it should be yours, too. Fact is, it’s hard to make big changes in life. That’s why so many of us struggle with our weight and health. The problem isn’t knowing what to do; it’s doing it. So forget grand, life-changing goals and start small instead.

The 10 Things You Should Hate About The Loss of Sleep

September 20th, 2010 admin

Did you know that the lack of sleep can make you grumpy and foggy? You may not realize what it can do to your life, memory, sex, looks and even the ability to loss weight, these are all serious-and surprising effect of sleep loss.
Sleepiness Causes Accidents-Some of the biggest disasters in recent history were caused by sleep deprivation: the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the massive/destructive Exxon Valdez oil spill, the 1986 nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl are just a few. Sleep loss is a big public safety hazard every day on the roads we travel. Drowsiness can slow reaction time as much as driving drunk; many studies have proven this and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that fatigue is a cause in 100,000 auto crashes with 1,500 crash-related deaths a year in the U.S.
The loss of sleep dumbs you down-Sleep plays a critical role in thinking and learning. Lack of sleep hurts these cognitive processes in many ways. First, it impairs attention, alertness, concentration, reasoning, and problem solving so this makes it more difficult to learn efficiently. Secondly during the night, various sleep cycles play a role in “consolidating” memories in the mind. If you don’t get enough sleep, you won’t be able to remember what you learned and experienced during the day.
Serious health problems can lead to sleep deprivation-Sleep disorders and chronic sleep loss can put you at risk for:
Heart disease
Heart attack
Heart failure
Irregular heartbeat
High blood pressure
Stroke
Diabetes
According to some estimates, 90% of people with insomnia — a sleep disorder characterized by trouble falling and staying asleep — also have another health condition.

4. Lack of Sleep Kills Sex Drive-Sleep specialists say that sleep-deprived men and women report lower and libidos less interest in sex. Depleted energy, sleepiness, and increased tension may be largely to blame. For men with sleep apnea, a respiratory problem that interrupts sleep, there may be another factor in the sexual slump. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in 2002 suggests that many men with sleep apnea also have low testosterone levels. In the study, nearly half of the men who suffered from severe sleep apnea also secreted abnormally low levels of testosterone during the night.

5. Sleepiness Is Depressing-In a 1997 study by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, people who slept less than five hours a night for seven nights felt stressed, angry, sad, and mentally exhausted. Over time, lack of sleep and sleep disorders can contribute to the symptoms of depression. The most common sleep disorder, insomnia, has the strongest link to depression. In a 2007 study of 10,000 people, those with insomnia were five times as likely to develop depression as those without. In fact, insomnia is often one of the first symptoms of depression. Insomnia and depression feed on each other. Sleep loss often aggravates the symptoms of depression, and depression can make it more difficult to fall asleep. On the positive side, treating sleep problems can help depression and its symptoms, and vice versa.

6. Lack of Sleep Ages Your Skin-Most people have experienced sallow skin and puffy eyes after a few nights of missed sleep. But it turns out that chronic sleep loss can lead to lackluster skin, fine lines, and dark circles under the eyes. When you don’t get enough sleep, your body releases more of the stress hormone cortisol. In excess amounts, cortisol can break down skin collagen, the protein that keeps skin smooth and elastic. Sleep loss also causes the body to release too little human growth hormone. When we’re young, human growth hormone promotes growth. As we age, it helps increase muscle mass, thicken skin, and strengthen bones. “It’s during deep sleep — what we call slow-wave sleep — that growth hormone is released,” says Phil Gehrman, PhD, CBSM, assistant professor of psychiatry and clinical director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine program at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. “It seems to be part of normal tissue repair — patching the wear and tear of the day.”

7. Forgetful? Sleepiness Makes You this way-If you are trying to keep your memory sharp? Try getting plenty of sleep. In 2009, American and French researchers determined that brain events called “sharp wave ripples” are responsible for consolidating memory. The ripples also transfer learned information from the hippocampus to the neocortex of the brain, where long-term memories are stored. Sharp wave ripples occur mostly during the deepest levels of sleep.

8. Losing Sleep Can Make You Gain Weight-When it comes to body weight, it may be that if you snooze, you lose. Lack of sleep seems to be related to an increase in hunger and appetite, and possibly to obesity. According to a 2004 study, people who sleep less than six hours a day were almost 30 percent more likely to become obese than those who slept seven to nine hours. Recent research has focused on the link between sleep and the peptides that regulate appetite. “Ghrelin stimulates hunger and leptin signals satiety to the brain and suppresses appetite,” says Siebern. “Shortened sleep time is associated with decreases in leptin and elevations in ghrelin.” Not only does sleep loss appear to stimulate appetite. It also stimulates cravings for high-fat, high-carbohydrate foods. Ongoing studies are considering whether adequate sleep should be a standard part of weight loss program. So if we are gaining sleep, we should be losing weight.

9. Lack of Sleep May Increase Risk of Death-In the “Whitehall II Study,” British researchers looked at how sleep patterns affected the mortality of more than 10,000 British civil servants over two decades. The results, published in 2007, showed that those who had cut their sleep from seven to five hours or fewer a night nearly doubled their risk of death from all causes. In particular, lack of sleep doubled the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.

10. Sleep Loss Impairs Judgment, Especially About Sleep! Lack of sleep can affect our interpretation of events. This hurts our ability to make sound judgments because we may not assess situations accurately and act on them wisely. Sleep-deprived people seem to be especially prone to poor judgment when it comes to assessing what lack of sleep is doing to them. In our increasingly fast-paced world, functioning on less sleep has become a kind of badge of honor. But sleep specialists say if you think you’re doing fine on less sleep, you’re probably wrong. And if you work in a profession where it’s important to be able to judge your level of functioning, this can be a big problem. “Studies show that over time, people who are getting six hours of sleep, instead of seven or eight, begin to feel that they’ve adapted to that sleep deprivation — they’ve gotten used to it,” Gehrman says. “But if you look at how they actually do on tests of mental alertness and performance, they continue to go downhill. So there’s a point in sleep deprivation when we lose touch with how impaired we are.”

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Some of the more common sleep disorders

June 22nd, 2010 admin

Our slumber can be plagued by over 80 known sleep problems and disorders. It is important to talk to your doctor or a sleep specialist as these can be diagnosed and are treatable. If you are having difficulty sleeping, be sure to maintain a sleep diary and share this with your doctor or healthcare specialist when reporting the issues. Some of the more common sleep disorders include:

Circadian Rhythm Disorders-The complex biological “clock” in humans sometimes breaks down. In delayed sleep phase syndrome, the “clock” runs later than normal. The sufferer often cannot fall asleep before 3 or 4 a.m. and cannot “wake” before noon. In advanced sleep phase syndrome, a person falls asleep early, for example at 7 or 8 p.m. and wakes at 3 or a.m. and is unable to fall bask asleep.

Insomnia-is a sleep problem experienced by over 50% of Americans, according to the 2008 NSF Sleep in America Poll, who report difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings, waking too early and having trouble getting back to sleep, and waking unrefreshed. Insomnia can be short or long-term and may be due to stress, an underlying medical or psychiatric problem such as depression, a loss or poor sleep/health habits.

Sleep Apnea-is commonly recognized sleep disorder. Sufferers actually stop breathing for at least 10 seconds, waking up hundreds of times per night, snorting and paused breathing as their body struggles for air. Untreated, its linked to high blood pressure, diabetes, and an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

Narcolepsy-people experience “sleep attacks” that can occur at any time. Strong emotions sometimes bring on a sudden loss of muscle control called “cataplexy”. When falling asleep or waking up, sufferers also may experience brief paralysis and/or vivid images and sounds.

Restless Legs Syndrome-is recognized by people having unusual sensations in the legs (and sometimes arms) that disturb sleep. Only movement brings relief. Individuals may also experience periodic limb movement disorder, PLMD, or jerking of the legs during sleep.

Sleepwalking-a tendency to get up and wander about while asleep, is common in children and tends to run in families. Protect the sleepwalker by keeping doors and windows locked.

Sleep Terrors-often scream or fight but have no memory of the event the next day.

Treatments for sleep disorders may include medication, light therapy, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, and scheduled naps.

Learn More About Sleep Disorders

July 15th, 2009 admin

What are the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea? If you or someone you love snores regularly and has one or more of the following symptoms, it may be obstructive sleep apnea:

  • Snoring, interrupted by pauses in breathing
  • Gasping or choking during sleep
  • Restless sleep
  • Excessive sleepiness or fatigue during the day
  • Crowded airway (large tonsils)
  • Large neck size (greater than 17″ in men; greater than 16″ in women)
  • Morning headache
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Frequent urination at night
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Irritability
  • Memory loss
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression
  • Obesity

Note: There are over 80 sleep-related disorders. See a larger list of disorders.